|Notable Muslims in History
- Khadîjah bint Khuwaylad, [d. 619], the first wife of the Prophet (Peace be upon Him), who eventually would become the first person to accept Islam and the Prophethood of Muhammad.
- Fatima, [d. 632], the daughter of Bibi Khadija and Prophet Muhammad [s] (Peace be upon Him).
- Ali ibn Abu Talib, [d. 661], the cousin of the Prophet, husband to Fatima and the fourth Caliph of Islam and the first Imam spiritual leader) in the Shia tradition of Islam.
- Rabia Al-Adwiyya, [717 - 801], famous sufi and poet.
- Jabir ibn hayyan - Kufa (Iraq), [d. 803], father of modern chemistry - kitab al kimya.
- Harun al-Rashid, [d. 809], fifth Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty, held court in Baghdad, patron of the arts and learning.
- Al Khawaraizmi (Uzbekistan), [d. 847], mathematician, developed algebra, the decimal system, trigonometry, the zero - al-jabr wa-al muqabilah.
- Imam Bukhari, [d. 870], and Imam Muslim [d. 875], two of the most famous collectors of Hadith [the sayings and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him)].
- Al Razi "rhazes, ray" (Iran), [d. 926], medicalscientist, modern chemistry: small pox, measles, medical texts including a medical encyclopedia of 25 books. Comparison of small pox and chicken pox, kitab al mansoori al-havi.
- Al-Masudi (Cairo), [d. 957], historian, wrote Al-Tanbeeh.
- Al-Zahrawi (Spain), [d. 1013}, surgery, medicine, developed surgery of eye, ear and throat, surgical instruments.
- Firdawsi, [d. 1020], poet, author of Shahnama, considered to be a Persian national epic.
- Al Haytham, "alhazen", (basra, iraq), [d. 1040], father of modern optics, Kitab al Manazir.
- Ibn Sina, [d. 1037], or Avicenna, most famous Muslim scholar of his era, master of Greek philosophy, and a pioneering physician and psychologist, wrote Canon of Medicine, which remained the standard text in medical schools throughout the Muslim World and Europe until the 16th century.
- Al-Biruni, [d. 1048], astronomer, mathematician, geographer, physicist and historian.
- Umar Khayyam (Persian), [d. 1123], poet and mathematician, mastered algebra and wrote the Rubaiyat.
- Al-Ghazali, [d. 1111], theologian, jurist and philosopher, professor at the renknowned Nizamiyah University in Baghdad, which he left to become traveller and a sufi.
- Salah al-Din ibn Ayyub (Saladin), [d. 1193], founder of the Ayub dynasty, Sultan of Egypt, fought against the crusades, signed a truce with Richard the Lionhearted to end the conflict between Christians and Muslims over Jerusalem.
- Ibn Rushd or Avveroes, [d. 1198], a physician, scientist, linguist, philosopher and reputed to be the ultimate authority on Aristotle and Plato.
- Al-Rakuni, [d. c.12th century], greatest woman poet of Muslim Spain.
- Al-Jaazaari, [d. 1200], engineer and inventor.
- Ibn al Arabi (Spain), [d. 1240], sufi and author of over 400 works.
- Al-Baitar (Spain), [d. 1248], botanist and medical scientist, wrote Kitab al Jami.
- Shajarat al-Durr (Egypt), [d. 1259]. Took the title of Sultan, regrouped the Egyptian army and defeated the Frankish Crusaders, minted coins in her name.
- Sultan Razia of Delhi (India), [d. 1240], The only woman to sit on the throne of Delhi, India.
- Jalal al-Din Rumi, [d. 1273], famous mystic and poet.
- Al-Nafis (Syria), [d. 1288], disocovery of ciruclatory system, coronary arteries, wrote Al-Shamil fi al tibb.
- Ibn Battuta, [d. 1369], famous and extensive travellor, left a detailed account of his journey and social commentary on the people and cultures he encountered.
- Ibn Khaldun, [d. 1406], historian, father of sociology, science of history, wrote the Muqaddimah.
- Ibn Masjid, [d. 15thcentury], navigator on Vasco de Gama's voyage from Portugal to India.
- Sinan, [d. 1587], master architect of the Ottoman empire, most famous for the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.
- Jamaluddin al-Afghani, [d. 1897] reformer, traveled widely throughout the Muslim world, calling for a new pan-Islamic unity to resist European colonization.
- Mirza Asad Ghalib, [d. 1897], poet, father of modern Urdu prose.
- Muhammad Iqbal, 1876-1938, poet, philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. Also considered the father of Pakistan.